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AC PLC – Why do Europe and the United States need ISO 15118 standard AC charging piles?

In European and American standard ordinary AC charging pile charging sessions, the charging status of the EVSE (charging pile) is usually controlled by the OBC (on-board charger controller).

In European and American standard ordinary AC charging pile charging sessions, the charging status of the EVSE (charging pile) is usually controlled by the OBC (on-board charger controller).

However, the application of AC PLC (power line communication) technology has established an efficient means of communication between charging piles and electric vehicles. In an AC charging session, PLC is used to manage the charging process, including handshake protocol, start charging, monitoring Charge status, billing and end of charge. These processes interact between the electric vehicle and the charging pile through PLC communication, ensuring that the charging process is efficient and payment can be negotiated.

AC PLC ev charger

PLC standards and protocols

The PLC described in ISO 15118-3 and DIN 70121 specifies the PSD limit for the injection of the HomePlug Green PHY PLC signal on the control wire for vehicle charging. HomePlug Green PHY is the PLC signal standard used in vehicle charging as specified in ISO 15118.

DIN 70121: This is an early standard developed in Germany to regulate the DC communication standard between electric vehicles and charging stations. However, it lacks Transport Layer Security during the charging communication process.

ISO 15118: Developed based on DIN 70121, it is used to standardize the safety charging requirements for AC/DC between electric vehicles and charging stations, with the goal of becoming an international standard for global communication protocols.

SAE standard: mainly applied in North America, also developed based on DIN 70121, used to standardize communication standards for electric vehicles and charging station interfaces.

The main characteristics of AC PLC:

Low power consumption: PLC is designed specifically for low-power applications, making it the best choice for smart charging and smart grid applications. This technology is applied throughout the entire charging session without consuming too much energy.

High speed data transmission: According to the HomePlug Green PHY standard, it supports data transmission rates up to 1 Gbps, which is crucial for applications that require fast data exchange, such as reading SOC data from the vehicle end.

Time synchronization: AC PLC supports precise time synchronization, which is crucial for intelligent charging and smart grid systems that require precise time control.

Compatible with ISO 15118-2/20: AC PLC is a key communication protocol for AC charging of electric vehicles. This means it can be used for communication between EVs and charging stations (EVSEs), supporting advanced charging functions such as demand response, remote control, and future PNC for smart charging and V2G for smart grids.

Advantages of AC PLC:

1. Improve energy efficiency and utilization
AC PLC charging stations can increase the intelligent proportion of ordinary AC charging stations, which account for more than 85% of the existing proportion, without the need for capacity expansion, achieving the goal of improving energy distribution efficiency and reducing energy waste in charging stations. Through intelligent control, the AC PLC charging station can automatically adjust the charging power according to changes in grid load and electricity price, achieving more efficient energy utilization.

2. Enhance the interconnection and interoperability of the power grid
PLC technology enables better integration of European and American AC exchange piles with smart grid systems, achieving cross-border power interconnection. This helps to achieve complementary and mutually beneficial clean energy on a wider geographical scale, improving the stability and reliability of the power grid. Especially in Europe, this interconnectivity can promote the optimal allocation of clean energy sources such as wind power in the north and solar energy in the south.

3. Support the development of smart grids
The AC PLC charging station can serve as a part of the smart grid and support its development. Through PLC technology, charging stations can collect and analyze charging data in real-time, manage energy, optimize charging strategies, and provide better user services. In addition, PLC can also support remote monitoring and control, improving the operational efficiency of charging stations.

4. Enhance the anti-interference ability of the power grid
The application of AC PLC charging piles can achieve stable operation in complex power grid environments through intelligent management. This plays a crucial role in ensuring the communication security and reliability of data transmission of charging stations, as well as the stability of power grid loads. Especially in Europe, the complexity and diversity of power grids require charging infrastructure to have strong anti-interference capabilities.

5. Reduce infrastructure construction costs
Due to the lower layout cost of AC PLC charging piles compared to DC high-power charging piles. This is an important economic advantage for European and American charging station operators, as it can reduce overall investment in charging infrastructure and accelerate the construction and deployment of charging stations.

Therefore, the application of AC PLC charging piles in Europe and America is driven by various factors, including cost-effectiveness, deployment convenience, intelligent management, market demand, policy support, and technological progress. These factors work together to make the AC PLC charging station an important component of the charging infrastructure for electric vehicles in Europe and America.

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